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Tuckman’s stages of group development Wikipedia

The main objective of group development is to develop a group that is able to perform the given tasks. In such a group, there is no feeling of “I” everyone is interdependent on each other and one’s actions affect the performance of the whole team. Group development is the process of creating a fully functioning group in order to accomplish a common goal effectively and efficiently. It is a process that involves a series of steps to form a group.

During the Forming stage, much of the team’s energy is focused on defining the team so task accomplishment may be relatively low. During the Forming stage of team development, four stages of group development team members are usually excited to be part of the team and eager about the work ahead. Members often have high positive expectations for the team experience.

Tuckman’s Group Development Stages

In 1977, she added the last stage — Adjourning — thereby completing what we now know as the modern theory of Team Development. The five most famous stages of team development are known as Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. Task activity is “the content of interaction as related to the task” (Tuckman, 1965, p. 385). Apart from Tuckman, other researchers acknowledged an ambiguous nature of a group being both a social structure and a goal-oriented team .

stages of group development

And sometimes the storming stage seems to last for much longer than is necessary. Keep to the project’s timeline and keep referring to the organizational tools you’ve developed. Refers to the commitment of members to the purpose of the group and the degree of attraction among individuals within the group .

Why Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development is Helpful

According to Wheelan , the objective of group development is the evolution of individuals into a productive and cohesive entity. Simply, adjourning stage refers to the ending of the group work but it is also confusing too. Since most of the group’s goal is achieved at this stage, such groups are deformed. The leadership, roles, responsibilities, authorities, and expectations of members are also changed, as a result.

stages of group development

Team members start to develop trust and respect for each other, and they start working together as a unit. This is a productive stage, as the team is now able to start tackling tasks and achieving goals. Norms are only effective in controlling behaviors when they are accepted by team members.

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And at the same time, team members may feel a sense of deep satisfaction at the accomplishments of the team. Individual members might feel all of these things at the same time, or may cycle through feelings of loss followed by feelings of satisfaction. Given these conflicting feelings, individual and team morale may rise or fall throughout the ending stage.

  • This last stage is known as mourning or termination (Business, n.d).
  • In project management, the Tuckman Ladder is referenced and used extensively by project managers to help them assemble and guide teams toward success.
  • Uncertainty is high during this stage, and people are looking for leadership and authority.
  • Initially, during the forming and storming stages, norms focus on expectations for attendance and commitment.
  • This is the stage where the team form’s their mission and establishes ground rules and objectives.

StudySmarter is commited to creating, free, high quality explainations, opening education to all. By registering you get free access to our website and app which will help you to super-charge your learning process. At the university level, students are often required to collaborate on group projects.


And, this stage ends when people think to start themselves as a part of the group. In this stage, people have the willingness to join the group and they try to introduce each other. They are excited to know each other and at the same time, they are also anxious to know the scope of the group and whether or not they are fit for that group.

stages of group development

However, the focus for group members during the forming stage is to become familiar with each other and their purpose, not on work. Because the marketing team successfully completed their objective, they enter into the adjourning stage of group development. One of the leaders proposes that the group goes out to dinner to celebrate their success, in addition to offering a time of group reflection before they are permanently disbanded.

Set a clear purpose and mission and revisit it throughout the process.

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